Blue Color: Psychology, Meaning and Symbolism

Blue, a color that commands a unique position in the color spectrum, has permeated various aspects of our lives, imbuing them with profound meanings and emotions. As the color of the sky and sea, it has been a ceaseless source of inspiration and symbolism throughout history and across cultures.

This article takes a deep dive into the world of the color blue – exploring its historical significance, its psychological implications, its pervasive presence in fashion, business, nature, web design, marketing, and its fascinating facts. We will also delve into its cultural interpretations, and discover how to effectively complement and contrast it in design. Join us on this colorful journey as we unlock the mysteries and marvels of blue.

The history of blue

Blue, a hue cherished and celebrated throughout the annals of history, carries a significant importance due to its rarity and the expense associated with its production. The ancient Egyptians and Romans revered this color, incorporating it into their clothing and artwork to reflect their social and cultural values.

It’s interesting to note that in the Middle Ages, the production of blue dyes, crafted from the precious stone Lapis Lazuli, was quite an expensive process. As a result, wearing blue clothing became a symbol of wealth, power, and prestige among the nobility.

However, it was only in the 1850s, with the advent of synthesized indigo dye, that the color blue became widely available and affordable to the general populace. This transition marked a shift in the socio-cultural dynamics, democratizing the color blue and making it a symbol of the ordinary and the everyday.

Egyptian Blue

  • By the name itself, it was invented in Ancient Egypt around 2,200 B.C., the same timeline they built the famous Great Pyramid.
  • The Egyptians were making complex combinations of certain limestones, sand, and minerals to produce a beautiful opaque blue glass.

Ultramarine (Lapiz Lazuli)

  • The semi-precious stone Lapis Lazuli, a deep-blue metamorphic rock, was highly prized among the Egyptians.
  • During the Renaissance, the bright blue mineral initially invented by Egyptians was often combined with other ingredients, which led to the development of the pigment ultramarine ー the most expensive of all pigments.
  • The famous gemstone can only be found in the rare mountains of Afghanistan.
  • Ultramarine is also known as ‘true blue’ and became a special detail in jewelry and headdresses back in the day.


  • Indigo is widely imported to several nations in the 17th and 18th centuries.
  • It is used more to color fabrics and yarns rather than as art pigments, which is why it’s less expensive as compared to the other shades of blue.

Prussian Blue

  • This new shade, Prussian blue, was invented in Berlin, Germany, which originally gave its german name ‘Berliner Blau’.
  • It is believed that it was mixed and matched by dye-maker Johann Jacob Piesbach while working on some pigments and accidentally came into contact with animal blood.
  • Famous painters like Jean-Antoine Watteau, Katsushika Hokusai, and Pablo Picasso used this color extensively in their world-class paintings.

International Klein Blue

  • In 1960, a French artist named Yves Klein favors the color blue and exclusively used it throughout his artistic career.
  • Klein created a matte and brighter version of the ultramarine pigment in Paris, which he called ‘International Klein Blue’ or IKB.
  • It is used in spray painting objects and ancient sculptures which are displayed and sold in art galleries.

Afterward, blue dyes were spread worldwide and are widely used for arts, fashion, and more. Synthetic blue pigments replaced organic dyes in the 19th century. Soon after, dark blue was used for military uniforms, and in the 20th century, it was one of the most popular colors for business suits.

The color blue continues to evolve even up to this day, with various stunning shades used in clothing, arts, business, and more.

Blue meaning and psychology

Calmness and peace are two words that come to mind when thinking about the color blue. It is a non-aggressive color that encourages serenity, orderliness, and tranquility. This could be because we associate oceans with blue, and it can be a mentally soothing color for some people.

Blue tends to be an appetite suppressant color.

  • Surveys show that blue is the least appetizing color, so some weight loss plans recommend eating food on a blue plate.
  • It is also known to lower blood pressure, which slows the heart rate and causes the body to relax.

Blue promotes trust and dependability.

  • The color blue can boost productivity due to its relaxing and mentally stimulating effects.
  • It has been chosen as the color of choice for law enforcement officers worldwide because it is associated with trust and dependability.
  • The idea behind blue uniforms is that blue should convey an authoritative yet calm and confident presence, just like the color itself.

The various shades of blue promote positive and negative psychological associations. It affects our mood, perceptions, and even physiological responses.

  • Darker shades of blue are known to help improve how we solve problems and make decisions.
  • Lighter shades aid in focusing on details while performing a given task.
  • The color blue is often linked to creativity, which helps generate ideas even under pressure.
  • Music genres that are called ‘blue’ are often referred to as sad songs related to breakup, loss of someone, and other painful experiences.
  • Blue drinks that are brighter in shade have been known to cause people to feel thirst.

Blue personality type

Somehow, the life purpose of those who like the color blue is linked with their ability to contribute to other people’s well-being. People who favor this color are known to be confident, loyal, and calm. However, they can also evoke feelings of sadness and depression.

So if your favorite color is blue, what does it say about your personality?

Positive Traits of Blue


  • You often display composure and can focus on your strengths rather than your weaknesses.
  • You believe in yourself, which can motivate others to do the same.


  • Those who like the color blue are known to be reliable and trustworthy on a given responsibility.
  • You are true to yourself, reflecting your genuine intention with others.


  • You spend a lot of time analyzing your thoughts and emotions.
  • Spending ‘me-time’ makes you feel more energized than hanging out with people.
  • You don’t like attention and prefer to blend in with the crowd.


  • You prefer strong and deep relationships compared to superficial ones. 
  • Aside from valuing commitment, you also appear to be determined about everything.

Good listener

  • Being a good listener allows you to be great friends with others even though you risk becoming emotionally dependent.
  • You also provide support and encouragement to people you care about.

Great partner

  • You avoid conflicts because, for you, one of the essential things in a relationship is the ability to communicate openly and honestly, which is why you are a great choice for someone who likes romantic and nurturing partners.
  • You are often affectionate, warm, and aware of other people’s feelings.

Negative Traits of Color Blue

Blue can sometimes appear icy, cold, and unfriendly. You may also identify yourself as having some of its opposing sides, especially if under pressure and stress.


  • Sometimes, you have a hard time letting go of the past and being emotional.
  • You can be easily affected by how people treat you.
  • When your emotions take over, you become moody and overly sensitive.


  • Due to your determination, you often refuse to change your opinion on something.
  • You visibly feel frustration and impatience when others try to convince you of something you disagree with.


  • The idea of coming out of your comfort zone makes you feel anxious.
  • You are easily flustered over frequent changes and prefer to keep everything on its initial plan.
  • You tend to get cautious and worry even about the little things.

Lack of spontaneity

  • Being comfortable with your comfort zone, you lack a sense of adventure.
  • When overwhelmed, you act out or become indifferent, which is why others find you cold-hearted.
  • Your predictability makes you monotonous or even boring.


  • As you’re too busy putting the needs of others first, you often forget you have to take care of yourself as well.
  • Your negativity at times can also lead to self-pity.

Blue in fashion

One important step towards creating a good impression is your outfit. We dress according to every situation, and we have to choose what color to wear wisely. If your goal is to have people perceive you as a competent and sincere individual, wearing blue clothing is an excellent way to start.

As mentioned earlier, blue is also widely used in uniforms as it conveys an authoritative and confident image. We usually see different hues of blue in clothing for both men and women. It is one of the most comfortable colors to wear in interviews, work, or even casual days.

On your first date, one can even wear a lovely blue dress or a nice blue tuxedo on a wedding day. It’s a color that represents loyalty, peace, confidence, and success – traits that we want to show people when they first see us. 

Blue in business

Blue is the color of trust. It suggests loyalty and integrity, which is why it is a great choice for businesses that want to project dependability, security, and peacefulness, such as financial companies.

Different hues of blue in branding and advertising can help manifest all the positive aspects of the color. In addition, it helps in building customer loyalty, which appears to be beneficial for small business owners.

Because blue is linked with reliability and trustworthiness, workplaces painted in this color can help improve business partnerships. Blue also connotes peace, responsibility, and relaxation, so it can boost workplace motivation while also promoting a pleasant and comfortable environment.

Blue is favored by both men and women, which is another good reason to use it for business.

Blue in nature

Blue is known to be the rarest color found in nature. While we may all agree that we often see the blue sky and ocean around us, have you ever seen other blue species of nature? Say for example a bluebird, blue insect, or blue plant? These unique organisms leave us in awe yet are hard to find.

Scientifically speaking, we see colors based on the light it absorbs from the color spectrum. The existence of the color blue in nature usually relies on chemistry, physics, or a combination of both sciences.

Blue Flowers

Did you know that blue flowers don’t really exist? The blue flowers we see are a combination of plant pigments and minerals combined with light. In fact, plenty of what we call ‘blue flowers’ are actually blue-toned purple, lavender, or even a cool-toned red.

Blue Animals

Blue animals on the other hand rely on physics to create a blue appearance. Certain animals that have rich blue hues are blue butterflies, peacocks, and a few other animals. Some are even using their blue hue to warn the predators while some rare sea creatures are like blue lights that are switching from time to time.

These are tricks that nature does for us to see the beauty of the color blue. It doesn’t really matter how it exactly happens. What’s important is that we enjoy what we see, which is indeed a reward from nature.

Blue in web design

Blue is currently considered one of the most demanding colors for web designers. Because of its common use, it has become too ordinary over time.

Some of the most popular websites, such as Facebook, Twitter, Foursquare, in the world have been using blue color schemes. However, they did it for a reason. Blue websites appear cool, transparent, clean, modern. They give the appearance of power, but also safety.

Combining blue with different shades of grey can make a website look high-tech and sleek. Lighter shades of blue are mostly used for websites that are about health and wellness, travel, relaxation. Patriotic organizations, legal firms, sports team usually use darker shades.

Blue in marketing

Blue is frequently used for social media logos. One reason for that is that blue represents intelligence, communication and trust. In fact, out of all the colors on the color wheel, blue is by far the most trustworthy one. That is one of the main reasons why blue is a popular choice in marketing.

Besides that, studies have shown that people are 15 percent more likely to go to stores that are painted in the hue such as blue, rather than a warm color. Blue is non-invasive and suggests loyalty and reliability.

It is also one of the rare colors that is favored by people of all ages. While it can suggest professionalism and authority in one moment, in the other, it inspires friendliness and security.  

Blue random facts

• The ancient Egyptians associated blue with the sky god Horus and wore blue lapis lazuli jewelry as a symbol of heavenly power. The color was considered sacred and royal.

• During the Middle Ages, blue dyes derived from lapis lazuli were extremely expensive, making blue clothing a status symbol. Only the nobility could afford to wear blue.

• Indigo dye, originally made from the indigo plant, was the main source of blue until the 19th century. Its production was labor intensive, making blue clothing costly.

• Synthetic indigo, invented in the 1850s, dramatically lowered the cost of blue dyes and made blue clothing widely available. This led to the phrase “born in a blue” to describe ordinary people.

• Baby boys are often dressed in blue to signify masculinity while pink was initially the favored color for girls. These gender color associations have reversed multiple times over the past 200+ years.

• Studies show people associate the color blue with concepts like openness, stability, order, coolness and wisdom. Blue can produce physiological effects like reducing blood pressure and soothing nerves.

• Blue is the most common color found in nature. The sky appears blue due to the way light scatters in the atmosphere. Many flowers, minerals, and animals also have blue patterns or pigments.

• Blue is an appealing color in marketing and branding due to its positive associations of dependability, trust, confidence and competence. However, blue logos lack differentiation if overused.

• Studies show that the color blue can have calming effects on the brain and body. It causes the brain to release serotonin, which regulates mood, appetite and sleep.

• Blue light, in particular, suppresses the production of melatonin. This helps promote alertness during the day, but can interfere with sleep if exposed to blue light at night.

• Some research suggests that viewing or wearing the color blue reduces stress, heart rate and blood pressure. These physiological effects may be due to blue’s association with calmness and tranquility.

• Blue presents more positively in females than males. This is likely due to cultural connotations and gender stereotypes that favor blue for little girls and pink for boys.

• Blue produces mixed responses in marketing and branding. While often viewed as dependable and trustworthy, blue logos can seem dull, uninspiring and less distinctive over time.

• Darker blue hues tend to convey more serious meanings while lighter blues project brightness, freshness and simplicity. Mid-tone blues provide the optimal balance.

• The color blue is frequently used in web design due to its positive connotations of trust, stability and professionalism online. However, blue text can be hard to read depending on the background color.

• According to some thinkers, blue represents the unification of opposites: the masculine (sky) and feminine (sea). Blue becomes a metaphor for balance, bridging heaven and earth.

• Blue is considered a “cold” color which is ironically fitting given its association with water and vast open spaces. In color theory, blue is placed opposite orange on the color wheel.

Blue in different cultures:

In Western cultures, blue is generally seen as a calm, tranquil and trustworthy hue. It symbolizes harmony, wisdom and spirituality. Blue is often used to represent water, the sky and infinity.

In China, blue traditionally represented the east and spring. It was associated with immortality and wisdom. The ancient Chinese wore blue clothing to ward off evil spirits.

In India, blue is the color of Krishna, one of the most beloved Hindu deities. Blue is seen as a divine, spiritual color that signifies truth and eternity. It is often used in religious ceremonies.

In Japan, blue traditionally symbolized loyalty, honesty and symbols the season of autumn. The color was associated with water and wisdom. Darker blues represented masculinity.

In Egypt, blue was the color of the sky god Horus and represented both masculinity and femininity. It symbolized creation, rebirth, protection and harmony. Blue garments were worn by both kings and queens.

In Islam, blue is the color of transcendence and represents both heaven and divine truth. Blue mosques and tiles are meant to remind worshippers of the divine and spiritual realm.

In Judaism, blue represents the heavens and divine truth. Blue threads were woven into the fringes of prayer shawls as a reminder of God’s commandments.

In Africa, blue has more variable associations depending on the specific culture and region.

However, blue is commonly used to represent water, which is central to life across the continent. So in summary, while the specifics vary, many cultures associate the color blue with spirituality, wisdom, water, the heavens and divine truth. Blue largely carries positive meanings across diverse cultures, though the nuances and symbolism differ in interesting ways.

Colors that compliment blue include:

Orange: Blue and orange are opposites on the color wheel, so they create a highly contrasting and visually pleasing combination. Used together, blue and orange convey a sense of balance and completeness.

Green: Warm greens like emerald and turquoise go well with cooler blue hues. Their similarity in brightness and saturation helps them harmonize. The pairing evokes natural, peaceful vibes.

Purple: Blues and purples sit next to each other on the color wheel, so their tones naturally complement each other. Together they convey nobility, luxury and spirituality.

Yellow: Lemon yellow provides a high-contrast partner to navy and cobalt blues. The complementary combination creates visual interest while still remaining visually soothing.

Red: Pairing blue with red tones like burgundy and crimson produces a sophisticated, romantic color scheme. The vibrant contrast elevates the impact of both colors.

Grey: Pairing blue with different shades of grey from silver to charcoal produces a neutral but stylish combination. The achromatic tones help balance the saturation of blue.

White: White provides the highest contrast to navy and dark blues while still remaining versatile. The combination produces a crisp, clean aesthetic with a nautical or winter vibe.

Some key factors to keep in mind when pairing blue with complementary colors:

• Match brightness and saturation levels for harmonious combinations

• Higher color contrast creates visual interest but can be overpowering

• Analogous color schemes (next to blue on the wheel) blend smoothly

• Complementary colors (opposite blue) produce aesthetic balance

• Neutrals help balance blue’s intensity while adding sophistication

With these principles in mind, most colors can pair nicely with blue tones through altering their relative hues, tones and values. The right mix creates a balanced, aesthetically pleasing and stylistically cohesive color palette.

Colors that provide high contrast with blue include:

Orange: As complementary colors opposite each other on the color wheel, orange and blue create a vibrant pairing with a visual tension that is both engaging and balancing. The classic combo signifies energy, creativity and balance.

Yellow: Lemon yellow, mustard and gold hues provide high contrast with both dark and light blues. The combination conveys warmth, happiness and a summery vibe. Contrast can be modulated by adjusting relative tones.

Red: When paired with blues like navy and cobalt, red produces a dramatic counterpoint that grabs attention while amplifying the impact of both hues. The balance signifies passion, excitement and warmth.

Brown: Earthy tones like chocolate brown and caramel provide a striking though still natural contrast with blue tones. The relationship suggests stability, practicality and connection to the physical world.

Black: Black contrasts perfectly with every other color, including all shades of blue. When combined well, black and blue convey elegance, authority and timelessness through their polarity.

White: White offers the highest level of contrast with blue while maintaining versatility. The crisp pairing produces an atmospheric vibe that is both fresh and clean. Bright whites mimic a wintry color scheme.

Key principles for contrasting colors with blue:

• Complementary colors on the wheel provide the strongest contrast

• Relative tones should be adjusted to modulate the contrast level

• Analogous complements balance blue through harmony more than contrast

• Contrast enhances the expressive power and visual impact of both colors

• Excessive contrast can be jarring; aim for dynamic balance instead

• White and black contrasts emulate air and water, creating simplicity

By combining blue with contrasting colors thoughtfully, designers can tap into the energizing effects of polarity while retaining balance. The relative proportion of each hue determines whether the vibe is calming or stimulating. With wise use, high contrast enhances and elevates the inherent symbolism of blue.

Blue color codes

In a RGB color space (made from three colored lights for red, green, and blue), hex #0000FF is made of 0% red, 0% green and 100% blue. In a CMYK color space (also known as process color, or four color, and used in color printing), hex #0000FF is made of 100% cyan, 100% magenta, 0% yellow and 0% black. Blue has a hue angle of 240 degrees, a saturation of 100% and a lightness of 50%.

Color conversion
The hexadecimal color #0000FF has RGB values of R: 0, G: 0, B: 100 and CMYK values of C: 1, M: 1, Y: 0, K:0.

HEX 0000ff






0, 0, 255


rgb(0, 0, 255)




0, 0, 100


rgb(0%, 0%, 100%)




100, 100, 0, 0




240°, 100, 50


hsl(240°, 100%, 50%)




240°, 100, 100










32.297, 79.188, -107.86




18.044, 7.218, 95.03




0.15, 0.06, 7.218




32.297, 133.808, 306.285




32.297, -9.405, -130.342




26.865, 75.488, -199.778




00000000, 00000000, 11111111



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  1. I consider myself to be a blue, but romance is something I do not have in me. So am I still a blue? And for those wondering, lack of romance has been and will be quite convenient for me, due to constant hard work (filming, teaching, researching, editing, philosophy, and a make-the-world-a-better-place project). On a side note, the psychology of colors is quite interesting to me, and I hope to incorporate it into more of my work.

      • Hello Matthew C,
        It I true, we are struggling with the same thing, I’ve had three break-ups, I’ve been accused of being more formal than romantic, and that is interpreted as not being in love or as not being caring.
        I have my projects to make the world a better place, but it is not an excuse for not being romantic, I just find it proper that there’s time for everything, and I don’t know how to act except to be cool and orderly.
        Being blue is fun except when you do a mistake of falling in love.

  2. Hey Color Psychology,

    I loved this read. Really good information. I’d like to see more sources and more about the author. Would you be ok with us linking to this article?

  3. Hello. I am in 9th grade. I have been researching about color psychology for 2 years. There is this one thing that I am deeply curious about, that I cannot find the answer to.

    When I went around information (your site as well), I found many saying that the color blue showed emotions of peace and trust, and I agree with it since blue is the color a lot of insurance and bank companies use.

    However, when I surveyed 60 people from my school, almost all of them answered that when they see blue, it reminds them sadness and restless. They also said green gives them the feeling of safety and trust.

    Could you tell me why there is a huge difference as written above between professional researches and individual ideas?

    I need to make a report to submit for school.

    Thank you!

    • Hi Mona,

      I think the main factor is context. In terms of logos and brand identities, blue reflects a cool professionalism. However, if it is just on its own or used as the main color in a painting or larger work of art, that “sedating” effect can be amplified and it can cause a more serene, solemn or in some cases sad feeling. In fact, the word “blue” is sometimes used as a synonym for sad.

      The saturation level of color plays a role, too. Bright blue or a pleasant sky blue tend to have a more cheerful effect, while a muted or grayish-blue can be more sedating and introspective.

      Hope this helps!

  4. Thanks for the article on blue, which is one of my favorite colors. I noticed that a lot of companies in the pharmaceutical and medical industry use blue, green, and white. I’m guessing this is because they all have such a strong connotation with being related to healthcare in someway. However, I’d be interested to know if there are any clinical tests that show how people positively respond to these different colors.

    • Hi Blissful,

      Yes, numerous studies have been done about human color responses. One marketing study found that color helps to improve brand recognition by up to 80 percent. Studies about the color blue have linked it with creativity and tranquility. Researchers believe this is due to the associations of blue with the sky, the sea and relaxing feelings. Blue is also perceived as “competent,” which would be valuable to a healthcare company’s image.

      Also, numerous studies have shown people experience green as calming and connected with nature, health, sustainability and durability, while white is associated with freshness, cleanliness and hope. It’s no wonder that these colors are so often used in healthcare industry marketing.

  5. Nice one

    this creates a mental picture of my being…can’t disown any.

    Going for a BLUE cake on my birthday.

  6. A study says that with blue rooms you have better sleep quality. But which blue? Sky blue? Navy blue? Royal blue? Or any blue?



  8. I have read that only 7% of receptors in our eyes are blue sensitive which are S Cones and other L and M cones are Red and Green sensitive.

    The question is if our eyes are only 7% sensitive to blue how do we see every blue so loud and clear. Why don’t we miss any?

    Does this practically make all humans dichromatic?

  9. I’m blue da ba de da be di da ba de da ba di
    I’m blue da be de da ba di da ba de da ba di da ba di da ba di

  10. Thanks it’s very usefull for me to know my friend personality so i want to say thanks for the good information

    Sorry if my english is not so good
    Couse i from indonesia(14 years old)

  11. I love blue and always have. This definition sums me up almost completely except for the social aspect and having close friends. Besides my lover/husband/best friend, I need my good friends and love to socialize a few times a month. Otherwise blue is me!!!!!

  12. Well, my favorite color is Blue and Gray and I also found out what color gray means in your site from your article color blue is what really my personality is, I often use in my things and in my room is the Sky blue color. But then I search for Gray because it’s my favorite color too and I always match it with my things and clothes, and even furniture. Then I fount out as I analyze it that the personality of color gray is contradiction to the personality of color blue. Lol hahah! But then psychologically I conclude that I am naturally a person who is blue but trying hard to be a gray? And yeah i found myself like this…

    Im sociable but sometimes I am admiring those people who are not sociable. I’m a person always surrounded by my friends and I can’t live without it. But then sometimes I just want to be alone and be quiet for some reasons. Most of the time I am open to everyone but again there’s area in my life that I don’t want to share, need of privacy. I envious the people like gray because they can be alone, but I can too if I will. but most of the time I’m not.

    Therefore I conclude. I’m a person who is Blue and want to have a person in my side like Gray. ^_^

    I will find a person like Gray. This is my totally opposite character. hahah!! Thank you for this, my friend. It helps a lot! ^_^ Godbless you!

  13. Blue represents both the sky and the sea, and is associated with open spaces, freedom, intuition, imagination, expansiveness, inspiration, and sensitivity. Blue also represents meanings of depth, trust, loyalty, sincerity, wisdom, confidence, stability, faith, heaven, and intelligence.

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